Food Safety

Updated: January 2019

Overview: The certified dietary manager (CDM) is the food safety expert in their department. They have the expertise and credentials to practice safe food handling, cleanliness, and food delivery. They are responsible for training staff and implementing the highest level of food safety standards in their department.

Supplemental Material: Access the Gap Analysis Tool to supplement your practices.

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Standard 1: Purchasing, Receiving and Storing Food

The certified dietary manager (CDM) ensures that they are purchasing food from approved sources and implement safe receiving and storage practices.

Criteria

Implement & Evaluate

1.1 Food is purchased from approved vendors.

✓ Quality Standards include grading, inspections, and HACCP verification.
✓ Review purchasing specifications and Policy & Procedure quarterly. Modify if customer’s needs or menu needs are not being met.
✓ There is a Policy & Procedure in place that includes food brought from the outside to insure proper food handling.

1.2 Food is inspected upon receiving, prior to storage by a receiving clerk or other designated employee.

Policies & Procedures for receiving are in place. Procedures include:

✓ Verifying for freshness
✓ Checking temperatures
✓ Checking for inspection stamps
✓ Rejecting damaged packages
✓ Looking for spoilage or pest infestation

Deliveries should be done when staff is available to conduct inspections.

CDM reviews receiving check-lists weekly.

1.3 Food packaging is intact, properly sealed and free from soilage.

✓ Receiving staff and CDM recognize the signs of contamination upon receipt.
✓ Food packaging that is opened, improperly sealed or has soilage will be rejected at time of receiving.
✓ Verify credit for returned items per vendor return policy.

1.4 Food is stored in well-lit, clean and ventilated storage areas that are at the proper temperature for the food item.

See also Practice Standard: Food Storage Guidelines

Policies and Procedures for storage are in place:
✓ Dry Storage 50℉-70℉
✓ Refrigerated storage < / = 41℉
✓ Deep chilling storage 26℉-32℉
✓ Freezer storage < / = 0℉

Store items away from walls and at least six inches off the floor and eighteen inches from the ceiling to allow for sprinkler clearance.

Rotate Stock: First In, First Out.

1.5 All food items are used by use-by dates.

Food production staff mark ready-to-eat, potentially hazardous foods at the time of preparation with the date by which the food shall be consumed, sold, or discarded.

✓ That date is seven calendar days or less from the day the food is prepared, if the food is maintained at 41℉ or less.
✓ The day or date marked may not exceed a manufacturer's use by date.

1.6 Raw foods are kept separate from ready-to-eat foods during storage, preparation, holding, and display.

1.7 Receiving staff are properly trained on receiving and storage procedures.

Competency Training:
✓ CDM trains staff on all receiving and storage functions applicable to their job
✓ CDM documents competency training/in-service attendance and competency skill testing evaluation
✓ CDM keeps records in the department

Standard 2: Handling and Storing Fresh Meat & Dairy

The certified dietary manager (CDM) handles fresh meat & dairy properly to avoid foodborne illness and outbreak for their customers.

Criteria

Implement & Evaluate

2.1 Fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish & dairy are received at safe temperatures.

Temperatures for receiving:
✓ Frozen Meat 0℉ or below
✓ Fresh Meat 41℉ or below
✓ Frozen Poultry 0℉ or below
✓ Fresh Poultry 41℉ or below
✓ Frozen Fish 0℉ or below
✓ Fresh Fish 41℉ or below
✓ Frozen Dairy 6℉-10℉
✓ Milk/dairy, eggs 45℉ or below

2.2 Fresh or frozen meat, poultry, fish & dairy are stored at safe temperatures.

Temperatures for Storage:
✓ Frozen Meat 0℉ or below
✓ Fresh Meat 41℉ or below

Separate from poultry
✓ Frozen Poultry 0℉ or below
✓ Fresh Poultry 41℉ or below

Store separately
✓ Frozen Fish 0℉ or below
✓ Fresh Fish 41℉ or below

Separate from poultry
✓ Frozen Dairy 0℉ or below
✓ Milk or Dairy 41℉ or below
✓ Unopened UHT room temperature

2.3 Separate Cutting Boards, working surfaces, knives and utensils are used for meat, fish and poultry.

✓ There are allergen specific cutting boards and knives.

2.4 All meat, poultry, fish & dairy are used within their shelf life date.

Shelf Life:
✓ Frozen Beef 4-12 months
✓ Fresh/thawed Meat 3-5 days
✓ Frozen Ground Beef 3-4 months
✓ Fresh/thawed ground beef 1-2 days
✓ Frozen Poultry 6-9 months
✓ Fresh/thawed poultry 1-2 days

Store separately
✓ Frozen Fish 2-10 months
✓ Fresh/thawed Fish 1-2 days
✓ Ice Cream 2-4 months
✓ Milk or Dairy use by date

Source: USDA Foodkeeper App

2.5 All staff receive training on how to handle fresh meat, poultry, fish & dairy.

Competency Training:
✓ CDM trains receiving staff on all functions applicable to their job
✓ CDM documents competency training/in-service attendance and competency skill testing evaluation
✓ CDM keeps records in the department

Standard 3: Handling and Storing Fresh Produce

The certified dietary manager (CDM) handles fresh produce properly to avoid foodborne illness and outbreak for their customers.

Criteria

Implement & Evaluate

3.1 Fresh produce is purchased from approved sources.

✓ The facility has a Policy & Procedure for purchasing fresh products from local markets or farmers that addresses produce safety.

3.2 All produce is prepared and handled using food safety protocols.

All produce that is purchased pre-cut or peeled is refrigerated immediately.

All packaged or unpacked fruits and vegetables should be thoroughly washed before service, even if the produce will be peeled prior to service.

Fresh produce should be washed under running water; it is not recommended to use soap or detergent or commercial produce washes.

Do not wash produce that is labeled “pre-washed”

Fruits and vegetables that will be eaten raw should be prepared separately from raw meats with separate cutting boards and utensils.

3.3 All produce should be stored at safe temperatures.

Temperatures for fresh fruits and vegetables are documented and tracked.

✓ Fresh Fruits & Vegetables < / = 41℉
✓ Frozen Fruits & Vegetables < / = 0℉

3.4 Produce is be kept in a separate cooler when possible.

3.5 All produce should be served and displayed at safe temperatures.

✓ Cooked vegetables and fruit 135℉
✓ Fresh/uncooked veg & fruit 30˚-41℉

3.6 All staff receive training in how to wash and prepare fresh vegetables and fruits.

Competency Training:
✓ CDM trains staff on food safety
✓ CDM documents competency training/in-service attendance and competency skill testing evaluation
✓ CDM keeps records in the department

Standard 4: Personal Cleanliness & Health

The certified dietary manager (CDM) adheres to policies for personal cleanliness and health. All staff in the department are held responsible for their cleanliness and health in order to prevent illness in co-workers and customers.

Criteria

Implement & Evaluate

4.1 Handwashing procedures and facilities are in place and utilized by staff.

Competency Training:
✓ CDM trains and evaluates staff on proper handwashing
✓ CDM documents competency training/in-service attendance and competency skill testing evaluation
✓ CDM observes employees routinely during food preparation to note need for retraining
✓ CDM keeps training records in the department

All Staff:
✓ Keep hands and exposed portions of their arms clean following a prescribed 20 second cleaning procedure using clean soap and water
✓ Vigorously rub together the surfaces of their hands and arms for at least 10-15 seconds
✓ Thoroughly rinse with clean water, paying attention to underneath the fingernails, utilizing a hand-wash sink.
✓ Dry hands with a single service towel or with a hand dryer.
✓ Clean their hands and arms as often as necessary to prevent contamination of food, clean equipment and utensils, and unwrapped single-service articles.
✓ As often as necessary includes: immediately before starting food preparation; after touching bare body parts; after using the bathroom; after coughing, sneezing, using a handkerchief, using tobacco, eating or drinking; when switching between working with raw food and ready-to-eat food; when changing tasks and before donning gloves for working with food.

If hand sanitizers are used, they shall consist of ingredients approved by the FDA (both as drug ingredients and as indirect food additives). They will be used only after the established handwashing procedure has been followed. Hand sanitizers are not a substitute for handwashing.

4.2 All staff in the department adhere to dress code and personal hygiene criteria.

All Staff:
• keep fingernails trimmed
• avoid fake nails or fingernail polish
• avoid jewelry, except for ring bands that are covered with gloves
• wear clean clothes
• wear hair restraints (hats, hairnets, beard nets)

4.3 There is a Policy & Procedure posted and updated in the department that notifies all staff avoid the department if they are ill or pose any risk for spread of infection.

Staff to Report to Management:
✓ Symptoms of an intestinal illness, boil, or an infected wound or have been previously ill
✓ Possible exposure to infectious agents

CDM:
✓ Notifies the appropriate regulatory authority when an employee is diagnosed with an illness due to Salmonella, Norovirus, Shigella, Escherichia coli, or hepatitis A virus.
✓ Excludes an employee from a food establishment if the employee is symptomatic with vomiting or diarrhea or has an infection or jaundice.
✓ Follows up on employees who report an illness with documentation.
✓ Follows up on employees who report a high-risk situation with documentation.
✓ Documents with date and reason, the exclusion or restriction of an employee due to illness.

Optional posting for employee illness: Food Worker Illness Flowchart

4.4 Food and Beverages consumed by staff are done so in designated areas and are not to be consumed in food prep or storage areas.

✓ Staff will label all personal food items with their name and date and only store in areas designated for staff use.

4.5 Staff is trained and evaluated on proper hand-washing.

Competency Training:
• CDM routinely offers competency training/ in-services on hand-washing including practical application skills of each employee
• CDM documents competency training/ in-service attendance
• CDM keeps records in the department
• CDM designates an employee to train and implement in the CDMs absence

4.6 Staff is trained and evaluated on personal hygiene, dress code and cleanliness.

Competency Training:
✓ CDM routinely offers competency training on personal hygiene, dress code and cleanliness Policies & Procedures.
✓ CDM evaluates practical application skills of each employee
✓ CDM documents competency training/ in-service attendance
✓ CDM keeps records in the department
✓ CDM designates an employee to train and implement in the CDMs absence
✓ CDM to monitor adherence by staff
✓ CDM to implement performance improvement plans as needed

Standard 5: Temperature Standards for Cooking, Holding and Serving

The certified dietary manager (CDM) implements procedures to ensure safe temperatures for all foods during the cooking and serving process to avoid customer illness or dissatisfaction.

Criteria

Implement & Evaluate

5.1 CDM and staff comply with local, state, and federal standards for cooking temperatures and holding time.

Suggested Minimums for Cooking:
✓ Whole cuts of meat 145℉ for 15 seconds
✓ Poultry, stuffed fish and meat, stuffed pasta 165℉ for <1 second (instantaneous)
✓ Chopped or ground seafood, beef, pork, veal, lamb) 155℉ for 17 seconds
✓ Fish or seafood 145℉ for 17 seconds
✓ Eggs (steam table) 155℉ for 15 seconds
✓ Egg (single-serving) 145℉ for 15 seconds
✓ Plant Foods/Fruits & Vegetables 135℉
✓ Microwave or reheated food 165℉ for 2 min

Holding Times:
✓ Potentially hazardous foods 135℉ or above
✓ Reheated food heated to 165℉ (within two hours) and then held at 135℉ or above
✓ Ready-to-eat foods 135℉ or above

5.2 Clean, calibrated thermometers are available at all times in the department

✓ Staff is trained in proper cleaning and calibration of all thermometers.

5.3 Food temperatures are taken and documented in compliance with the department’s Policy & Procedures.

CDM:
✓ Reviews temperature records daily
✓ Follows up on problem temperatures with documentation and records corrective action
✓ Makes temperature charts available for inspections/ surveys
✓ Periodically checks hot food temperatures and compares them to daily records
✓ Documents in-services that review hot cooking temperature standards and corrective procedures
✓ Designates an employee trained in these procedures to act in the manager’s absence.

Train and Monitor Staff to:
✓ Record hot food temperatures at the end point of cooking
✓ Follow standard corrective procedures for hot foods not at the appropriate temperature
✓ Foods being held for service: record immediately before service and regularly per policy

5.4 Customers are surveyed, annually or more frequently if needed, to determine satisfaction with plated temperatures.

✓ Prepare a survey in written form
✓ Assign staff to verbally give survey as needed
✓ Review surveys and adjust service as needed
✓ Informs customers (in writing) who order raw or partially cooked foods such as eggs, beef, fish, or poultry of the increased risk associated with consuming such foods

5.5 Temperatures of plated food is taken weekly.

CDM:
✓ Reviews temperature records
✓ Compares temperatures of foods to written temperatures on logs on a regular basis
✓ Adjusts service as needed

Train and Monitor Staff to:
✓ Take temperatures of all hot food items on select plates ready for service
✓ Record temperatures of items on standard forms
✓ Follow standard corrective procedures for hot foods not at temperatures acceptable to clients

5.6 Cooked food is cooled properly.

Cooked potentially hazardous foods:
✓ cooled within two hours, from 135℉ to 70℉ -AND-
✓ within four hours, from 70℉ to 41℉

Acceptable Cooling Methods:
✓ Placing the food in shallow pans, cover & refrigerate
✓ Separating food into smaller or thinner portions, cover & refrigerate
✓ Using rapid cooling equipment.
✓ Stirring the food that is placed in an ice bath.
✓ Adding ice as an ingredient.

CDM:
✓ Provides forms for documentation
✓ Checks temperatures compared to logs weekly
✓ Takes immediate corrective action on any errors
✓ Assign staff to complete tasks in CDM absence
✓ Provide temperature logs for inspections

Staff:
✓ Record temperatures of food that is properly cooled prior to storage in the refrigeration unit
✓ Stores cooked food for cold holding at 41℉ or below
✓ Records temperatures of cold holding equipment at least once during every shift
✓ Follows standard corrective procedures for foods not cooled to the appropriate temperature or time or if cold-holding equipment is not at the proper temperature.

5.7 Staff are trained to identify potentially hazardous foods and proper cooling methods.

Competency Training:
✓ Routinely offers competency training/ in-services on food safety and cooling methods and practical application skills of each employee
✓ Documents competency training/ in-service attendance
✓ Keeps records in the department
✓ Designates an employee to train and implement in the CDMs absence

5.8 Staff are trained on using thermometers, taking and recording temperatures.

Competency Training:
✓ Routinely offers competency training/ in-services on taking temperatures and practical application skills of each employee
✓ Documents competency training/ in-service attendance
✓ Keeps records in the department
✓ Designates an employee to train and implement in the CDMs absence

Standard 6: HACCP

The certified dietary manager (CDM) implements a proactive system to manage food safety in which each particular step of the food production process may be identified as being critical for food safety (HACCP).

Criteria

Implement & Evaluate

6.1 The CDM utilizes the Seven Principles of HACCP to maintain the safety of all menu items served to customers.

1. Analyze hazards
2. Identify critical control points (CCPs)
3. Establish critical limits for CCPs
4. Establish procedures for monitoring CCPs
5. Establish corrective actions
6. Establish a record-keeping system
7. Establish procedures to verify that the system is working

6.2 The CDM maintains a written HACCP plan that includes maintenance of records.

Examples of documents that can be included in the total HACCP system:
✓ Listing of the HACCP team and assigned responsibilities
✓ Description of the product and its intended use
✓ Flow diagram of food preparation indicating CCPs
✓ Hazards associated with each CCP and preventive measures
✓ Critical limits
✓ Monitoring system
✓ Corrective action plans for deviations from critical limits
✓ Procedures for verification of HACCP system

6.3 The CDM verifies that the HACCP system is working.

✓ Establish appropriate verification inspection schedules
✓ Visual inspections of operations to observe if CCPs are under control
✓ Random sample collection and analysis
✓ Review of CCP records
✓ Review of deviations and their resolution, including the disposition of food

6.4 The Staff is trained on the HACCP process.

Competency Training:
✓ Routinely offers competency training/ in-services on the HACCP process and practical application skills of each employee
✓ Documents competency training/ in-service attendance
✓ Keeps records in the department
✓ Designates an employee to train and implement in the CDMs absence

6.5 The CDM maintains and updates their knowledge on how to write and revise HACCP plans.

HACCP: The Food Employee Perspective
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Is Your Plan Working?
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References:

FDA, 2017 Food Code. 2017 http://www.fda.gov/FoodCode

FDA Foodsaver App

Legvold, Dee, and Salisbury, Kristi. Foodservice Management by Design. Association of Nutrition & Foodservice Professionals, 2nd Edition, 2018.

Kristin Klinefelter, MS, RDN, LD has been in the dietetics field for 20 years, working in a variety of consulting and education capacities. She has been working with the University of North Dakota's Nutrition and Foodservice Training Program for ten years and served on the Certifying Board for Dietary Managers (CBDM) for six years.


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